ovarian torsion (when the ovary twists on its blood supply, usually due to a large ovarian cyst),
ruptured or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst (when the ovary bleeds either within or outside of itself following a physiological ovulation event)
ectopic pregnancy (when an embryo implants outside of the uterine cavity, usually within the Fallopian tube)
pelvic inflammatory disease (when there is an active infection within the uterus, Fallopian tubes, or pelvic cavity)
Ovarian endometriosis – ovarian cysts filled with endometriosis tissue and blood
Deep endometriosis – nodules of endometriosis and fibrosis infiltrating certain tissues like the bowel, vagina, bladder, ureters. In rare circumstances, endometriosis can block the ureters leading to kidney damage
Superficial endometriosis – very small deposits of endometriosis that sit atop the peritoneum or other surfaces in the pelvis but do not penetrate beneath the surface
Endometriosis is a known and common cause of pelvic adhesions, particularly between the ovaries and the pelvic walls and between the uterus and the rectum. In some cases, these severe adhesions can lead to issues with fertility and with bowel movement function.